요양병원 간호사의 감정노동, 직무스트레스 및 삶의 질

Other Titles
Emotional labor, Job stress and Professional quality of life among Nurses in Long-term care hospital
Authors
김희진
Abstract
This study attempted to provide basic data needed to develop nursing intervention program. These programs can relieve emotional labor and job stress of nurses at long-term care hospitals, and improve their professional quality of life, by identifying degrees of emotional labor, job stress, and professional quality of life. This study investigated the correlation among variables and analyzing factors which affect their professional quality of life. Data collection was targeted to 136 nurses at 8 long-term care hospitals located in Chang-won city from May 1, 2016 to June 30, 2016. Emotional labor was measured by a tool invented by Morris and Feldman, translated by Kim, and modified for nurses by Song. Job stress was measured by a tool invented by Ku & Kim, and modified by Lee. Professional quality of life was measured by a tool invented by Stamm. As for data analysis, frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, t-test, ANOVA, and Scheffe teat, Pearson correlation, and Stepwise multiple regression were used. In terms of research results, emotional labor had a mean of 3.08±0.61, and frequency of emotional labor as a subcategory item of emotional labor was the highest score of 3.32±0.71. Job stress had a mean of 3.24±0.55, and items related with caregivers and patients had a high point of 3.72±0.78. As for subcategory items professional quality of life, 3.49±0.52 of compassion satisfaction, 2.62±0.51 of secondary traumatic stress, and 2.62±0.49 of burnout were shown. There were statistically significant differences from subjects’ emotional labor according to age (F=4.55, p=.005), marital status (t=2.20, p=.030) satisfaction of working ward (F=13.69, p<.001), physical condition (F=8.76, p<.001) and from job stress according to age (F=5.00, p=.003), education (t=-2.19, p=.030) satisfaction of working ward (F=6.25, p=.003), physical condition (F=7.15, p=.001). There were also statistically significant differences from subjects’ compassion satisfaction according to age (F=9.46, p<.001), marital status (t=-4.61, p<.001), position (t=-2.92, p=.004), clinical career (F=6.98, p<.001), shift pattern of duties (t=-2.85, p=.005), total income (F=4.52, p=.013) satisfaction of working ward (F=5.82, p=.004), physical condition (F=4.49, p=.013), burnout according to age (F=7.84, p<.001), marital status `(t=3.96, p=.001), clinical career (F=3.23, p=.025), total income (F=3.23, p=.043), satisfaction of working ward (F=5.12, p=.007), satisfaction of physical condition (F=8.33, p<.001). As for correlations among compassion satisfaction, secondary traumatic stress, and burnout as subcategory items of emotional labor, job stress, and professional quality of life nurses at long-term care hospital, there were significant correlations between emotional labor and job stress (r=.55, p<.001), emotional labor and compassion satisfaction (r=-.28, p=.001), emotional labor and secondary traumatic stress (r=.36, p<.001), emotional labor and burnout (r=.44, p<.001), and job stress and secondary traumatic stress (r=.28, p=.001), and job stress and burnout (r=.33, p=.001). As for factors that affect compassion satisfaction, a subcategory area of subjects’ professional quality of life, age (β=.38, p<.001) and usually option from satisfaction on working ward (β=-.23, p=.003), non shift from shift pattern of duties (t=.15, p=.046), showed significant differences. The three variables’ explanation power on compassion satisfaction was 25.0%. As for factors that affect secondary traumatic stress, a subcategory area of subjects’ professional quality of life, emotional labor (β=.32, p<.001) showed a significant difference. The emotional labor’s explanation power on secondary traumatic stress was 13.0%. Factors that affect burnout, a subcategory area of subjects’ professional quality of life, emotional labor (β=.33, p=.001), age (β=-.30, p<.001), usually option from satisfaction on physical condition (β=.19, p=.011) showed significant differences. The three variables’ explanation power on burnout is 31.0%. On the basis of research results, education and intervention development are required to relieve emotional labor and job stress of nurses at long-term care hospitals and to improve their professional life quality.
본 연구는 요양병원 간호사의 감정노동, 직무스트레스 및 전문직 삶의 질 정도를 확인 및 이들 간의 상관관계를 파악하고, 전문직 삶의 질 영향요인을 분석하여, 요양병원 간호사의 감정노동과 직무스트레스를 감소시키고 전문직 삶의 질을 향상시킬 수 있는 간호중재 프로그램 개발에 필요한 기초자료를 제공하조가 시도되었다. 자료 수집은 2016년 5월 1일부터 6월 30일까지 창원시에 소재한 8곳의 요양병원에 근무하는 간호사 136명을 대상으로 하였다. 측정도구는 감정노동은 Morris와 Feldman이 개발한 도구를 Kim이 번역하고 Song이 간호사에 맞게 수정, 보완한 도구를 사용하였고, 직무스트레스는 Ku와 Kim이 개발한 도구를 Lee가 수정, 보완한 도구를 사용하였고, 전문직 삶의 질은 Stamm이 개발한 도구를 사용하였다. 자료 분석은 빈도, 백분율, 평균, 표준편차, t-test, ANOVA, Scheffe test, Pearson correlation, Multiple stepwise regression 사용하여 분석하였다. 연구 결과를 살펴보면, 감정노동은 평균 3.08±0.61점으로 감정노동의 하위항목인 감정노동의 빈도가 3.32±.71점으로 가장 높게 나타났고, 직무스트레스는 평균 3.24±0.55로, 직무스트레스 하위항목인 보호자 및 환자와 관련된 사항이 3.72±0.78로 높게 나타났다. 대상자의 전문직 삶의 질 하위영역 공감만족은 3.49±0.52, 이차 외상성 스트레스는 2.62±0.51, 소진은 2.56±0.42로 나타났다. 대상자의 감정노동은 연령(F=4.55, p=.005), 결혼유무(F=2.20, p=.030), 근무병동 만족도(F=13.69, p<.001), 건강상태(F=8.76, p<.001)에 따라, 직무스트레스는 연령(F=5.00, p=.003), 최종학력(F=-2.19, p=.030), 근무병동 만족도(F=6.25, p=.003), 건강상태(F=7.15, p=.001)에 따라 통계적으로 유의한 차이가 있었다. 대상자의 공감만족은 연령(F=9.46, p<.001), 결혼유무(t=-4.61, p<.001), 직위(t=-2.29, p=.004), 임상경력(F=6.98, p<.001), 근무형태(t=-2.81, p=.005), 가계의 총수입(t=4,52, p=.013), 근무병동 만족도(F=5.82, p=.004), 건강상태(F=4.49, p=.013)에 따라, 소진은 연령(F=7.84, p<.001), 결혼유무(t=3.96 p=.001), 임상경력(F=3.23, p=.025), 가계의 총수입(t=3.23, p=.044), 근무병동 만족도(F=5.18, p=.004), 건강상태 만족도(F=8.33, p<.001)에 따라 통계적으로 유의한 차이가 있었다. 요양병원 간호사의 감정노동, 직무스트레스, 전문직 삶의 질 하위영역 공감만족, 이차 외상성 스트레스, 소진의 상관관계에서 감정노동과 직무스트레스(r=.55, p<.001), 감정노동과 공감만족(r=-.28, p=.001) 감정노동과 이차 외상성 스트레스(r=.36, p<.001), 감정노동과 소진(r=.44, p<.001), 직무스트레스와 이차 외상성 스트레스(r=.28, p=.001), 직무스트레스와 소진(r=.33, p=.001)은 유의한 상관관계를 보였다. 대상자의 전문직 삶의 질 하위영역 공감만족에 영향을 미치는 요인은 연령(β=.38, p<.001)과 근무병동만족도의 보통이하(β=-.23, p=.003), 근무형태의 비교대 근무(β=.15, p=.046)이 유의하게 나타났다. 세 가지 변수들의 공감만족 설명력은 25.0%이었다 대상자의 삶의 질 하위영역인 이차 외상성 스트레스에 영향을 미치는 요인은 감정노동(β=.36, p<.001)이 유의하게 나타났다. 감정노동의 이차 외상성 스트레스 설명력은 13.0% 이었다. 대상자의 전문직 삶의 질 하위영역 소진에 영향을 미치는 요인은 감정노동(β=.33, p=.001), 연령(β=-.30, p<.001), 건강상태 만족도(β=.19, p=.011)의 보통이 유의하게 나타났다. 세 가지 변수의 소진 설명력은 31.0% 이었다 본 연구결과를 바탕으로 요양병원 간호사의 감정노동과 직무스트레스를 감소시키고 전문직 삶의 질을 증진시키기 위한 교육 및 중재 개발이 필요하다.
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http://kumel.medlib.dsmc.or.kr/handle/2015.oak/12925
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3. Thesis (학위논문) > 2. College of Nursing (간호대학) > 석사
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