Hypophosphatemic osteomalacia induced by low-dose adefovir therapy: focus on manifestations in the skeletal system and literature review

Du Hwan KimDuk Hyun SungYong Ki Min
Dept. of Rehabilitation Medicine (재활의학)
Issue Date
Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism, Vol.31(2) : 240-246, 2013
Osteomalacia is a metabolic bone disease that leads to softening of the bones and can be caused by hypophosphatemia. Large clinical studies of low-dose adefovir dipivoxil (adefovir) have found no evidence of renal tubular dysfunction leading to hypophosphatemia after 48 weeks of treatment. We report two cases of low-dose adefovir-induced hypophosphatemic osteomalacia that initially presented with diffuse musculoskeletal pain. The first patient was a 62-year-old man with a 2-year history of bone pain involving the dorsal mid-thorax, lower anterior chest wall, right sacroiliac joint area, and both knees. The patient had been receiving adefovir for 5 years before confirmation of hypophosphatemia and urinary phosphate wasting. Bone scintigraphy revealed multifocal lesions including multiple ribs, costochondral junctions, costovertebral junctions, sacrum, both posterior iliac bones, both proximal tibia, right calcaneus, and the left second metatarsophalangeal joint area, which were suggestive of metabolic bone disorder. Bone pain was significantly reduced within 3 months after supplementation with phosphate and calcitriol. The second patient was a 54-year-old male who presented with an 18-month history of severe bone pain of the right medial knee and low back. The patient had been taking adefovir for approximately 40 months before the development of bone pain. Laboratory data revealed hypophosphatemia and vitamin D deficiency. Bone scintigraphy showed increased uptake in bilateral ribs, sternum, both scapulae, both costovertebral junctions, both pelvic bones, medial cortex of the right proximal femur, right proximal tibia, and the left lateral tarsal bone. The symptoms improved by changing the antiviral agent from adefovir to entecavir. Because osteomalacia often presents with diffuse bone pain, non-specific radiologic findings and non-characteristic routine serum biochemical changes, the disease can be confused with various musculoskeletal diseases and a high index of suspicion is necessary for an early diagnosis in patients receiving adefovir therapy.
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1. Journal Papers (연구논문) > 1. School of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Rehabilitation Medicine (재활의학)
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