β-Lapachone induces programmed necrosis through the RIP1-PARP-AIF-dependent pathway in human hepatocellular carcinoma SK-Hep1 cells
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- Kwon, Taeg Kyu
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- β-Lapachone activates multiple cell death mechanisms including apoptosis, autophagy and necrotic cell death in cancer cells. In this study, we investigated β-lapachone-induced cell death and the underlying mechanisms in human hepatocellular carcinoma SK-Hep1 cells. β-Lapachone markedly induced cell death without caspase activation. β-Lapachone increased PI uptake and HMGB-1 release to extracellular space, which are markers of necrotic cell death. Necrostatin-1 (a RIP1 kinase inhibitor) markedly inhibited β-lapachone-induced cell death and HMGB-1 release. In addition, β-lapachone activated poly (ADP-ribosyl) polymerase-1(PARP-1) and promoted AIF release, and DPQ (a PARP-1 specific inhibitor) or AIF siRNA blocked β-lapachone-induced cell death. Furthermore, necrostatin-1 blocked PARP-1 activation and cytosolic AIF translocation. We also found that β-lapachone-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production has an important role in the activation of the RIP1-PARP1-AIF pathway. Finally, β-lapachone-induced cell death was inhibited by dicoumarol (a NQO-1 inhibitor), and NQO1 expression was correlated with sensitivity to β-lapachone. Taken together, our results demonstrate that β-lapachone induces programmed necrosis through the NQO1-dependent ROS-mediated RIP1-PARP1-AIF pathway.
Keywords: β-Lapachone; NQO1; ROS; RIP1; PARP1; AIF
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