Anatomic variations in the branching pattern of the axillary
artery are common and have been studied by many authors.
The origin of the anterior circumflex humeral artery is also
various and its association with other variations has been
focused recently. This study identified the origin of the anterior
circumflex humeral artery, the communication between the
musculocutaneous and median nerves, and the third head of the
biceps brachii muscle, and then their associations were
examined. Axillae of 75 cadavers were dissected and these
variations were collected. The anterior circumflex humeral
artery arose directly from the third parts of the axillary artery
in 82.0% of upper limbs. It also arose as common stem for both
humeral arteries in 7.3% of the third part of the axillary artery
and in 5.3% of the subscapular artery, respectively. The
anterior circumflex humeral artery was absent in 2.7% and two
anterior circumflex humeral artery was found in 1.3% of limbs.
The communication between the musculocutaneous and median
nerves and the third head of the biceps brachii muscle were
found in 32.0% and 16.0% of upper limbs, respectively. These
variations were not statistically associated with each other.
These results may provide deep knowledge about the anatomy
of the anterior circumflex humeral artery and contribute to
explain its clinical implications.