Sulforaphane inhibits the interferon-γ-induced expression of MIG, IP-10 and I-TAC in INS-1 pancreatic β-cells through the downregulation of IRF-1, STAT-1 and PKB
- Affiliated Author(s)
- 장병철; 김신; 박종욱
- Alternative Author(s)
- Jang, Byeong Churl; Kim, Shin; Park, Jong Wook
- Journal Title
- International Journal of Molecular Medicine
- Issued Date
- Sulforaphane (SFN) is a dietary isothiocyanate abundantly available in cruciferous vegetables and has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. Chemokines are important mediators of inflammation and immune responses due to their ability to recruit and activate macrophages and leukocytes. To date, little is known about the SFN-mediated regulation of chemokine expression in pancreatic β-cells. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects and mechanisms of SFN on the interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-induced expression of a subset of chemokines, including monokine induced by IFN-γ (MIG), IFN-inducible protein of 10 kDa (IP-10) and IFN-inducible T‑cell alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC), in INS‑1 cells, a rat pancreatic β-cell line. Notably, IFN-γ treatment led to an increase in the mRNA expression levels of MIG, IP-10 and I-TAC in the INS‑1 cells. However, SFN strongly blocked the mRNA expressions of MIG, IP-10 and I-TAC induced by IFN-γ in INS‑1 cells. On the mechanistic level, SFN significanlty decreased not only the mRNA expression levels of interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1), but also the phosphorylation levels of signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT-1) and protein kinase B (PKB) which were induced by IFN-γ in the INS‑1 cells. Pharmacological inhibition experiments further revealed that treatment with JAK inhibitor I weakly inhibited the IFN-γ-induced expression of IP-10, whereas it strongly suppressed the IFN-γ-induced expression of MIG and I-TAC in the INS‑1 cells. Moreover, treatment with LY294002, a PI3K/PKB inhibitor, was able to slightly repress IFN‑γ‑induced expressions of MIG and I-TAC, but not IP-10, in INS‑1 cells. Importantly, the IFN-γ-induced increase in the expression levels of MIG, IP-10 and I-TAC in the INS-1 cells was strongly inhibited by SFN, but not by other natural substances, such as curcumin, sanguinarine, resveratrol, triptolide and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), suggesting the specificity of SFN in downregulating the levels of these chemokines. To the best of our knowledge, these results collectively demonstrate for the first time that SFN strongly inhibits the IFN-γ-induced expression of MIG, IP-10 and I-TAC in INS‑1 cells and this inhibition is, at least in part, mediated through the reduced expression and phosphorylation levels of IRF-1, STAT-1 and PKB.
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