Inflammatory cytokines are overexpressed in the subacromial bursa of frozen shoulder
- 조철현; 송광순; 민병우; 배기철; 이경재; 하은영; 황일선
- Alternative Author(s)
- Cho, Chul Hyun; Song, Kwang Soon; Min, Byung Woo; Bae, Ki Cheor; Lee, Kyung Jae; Ha, Eun Young; Hwang, Il Seon
- Publication Year
- Frozen shoulder; joint capsule; subacromial bursa; cytokines; inflammation; fibrosis
Frozen shoulder is a debilitating condition characterized by gradual loss of glenohumeral motion with chronic inflammation and capsular fibrosis. Yet its pathogenesis remains largely unknown. We hypothesized that the subacromial bursa may be responsible for the pathogenesis of frozen shoulder by producing inflammatory cytokines.
Materials and methods:
We obtained joint capsules and subacromial bursae from 14 patients with idiopathic frozen shoulder and from 7 control subjects to determine the expression levels of interleukin (IL) 1α, IL-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), cyclooxygenase (COX) 1, and COX-2 by real-time reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
IL-1α, IL-1β, TNF-α, COX-1, and COX-2 were expressed at significantly high levels in the joint capsules of the frozen shoulder group compared with those of the control group. Intriguingly, IL-1α, TNF-α, and COX-2 were also expressed at significantly high levels in the subacromial bursae of the frozen shoulder group compared with those of the control group. Immunohistochemical analysis showed increased expression of COX-2 in both the joint capsules and subacromial bursae of the frozen shoulder group.
These findings imply that elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines in the subacromial bursa may be associated with the pathogenesis of inflammation evolving into fibrosis.
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