Tongqiaohuoxue Hinders Development and Progression of Atherosclerosis: A Possible Role in Alzheimer's Disease
- Alternative Author(s)
- Ha, Eun Young
- Issued Date
- Tongqiaohuoxue decoction; atherosclerosis; apolipoprotein E; Alzheimer's disease; resistin
- Atherosclerosis is closely associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Tongqiaohuoxue decoction (THD) is a classical herbal prescription in traditional Chinese medicine widely used for the prevention and treatment of cerebrovascular disease. This study aimed to explore the therapeutic effects of THD on atherosclerosis and AD. Eight-week-old C57BL6/J wild-type and ApoE-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice were fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet for eight weeks, followed by oral phosphate-buffered saline vehicle or THD treatment for eight weeks further. In ApoE-/- mice, THD attenuated lipid deposition in the aorta and the brain, and abrogated atherosclerotic changes without affecting serum lipid profiles while decreasing amyloid plaque formation. In vitro assays undertaken to understand THD's effects on lipid clearance in the aorta and brain vessels revealed that THD treatment inhibited the lipid uptake, stimulated by oxidized low-density lipoprotein, resulted in decreased endothelial cell activation through reduction in intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 levels. Serum analysis revealed inhibitory effects of THD on resistin production, which has important roles in the development of both atherosclerosis and AD. In conclusion, the current study demonstrates beneficial effects of THD on the development and progression of atherosclerosis, and a possible protective role against AD.
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