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Rg3-enriched red ginseng extracts enhance apoptosis in CoCl 2 -stimulated breast cancer cells by suppressing autophagy

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Author(s)
Yun-Jeong JeongMi-Hee YuYuna ChoMin-Young JoKwon-Ho SongYung Hyun ChoiTaeg Kyu KwonJong-Young KwakYoung-Chae Chang
Keimyung Author(s)
Kwon, Taeg Kyu
Department
Dept. of Immunology (면역학)
Journal Title
J Ginseng Res
Issued Date
2024
Volume
48
Issue
1
Keyword
Rg3-enriched red ginseng extracts autophagy apoptosis ROS
Abstract
Background:
Ginsenoside Rg3, a primary bioactive component of red ginseng, has anti-cancer effects. However, the effects of Rg3-enriched ginseng extract (Rg3RGE) on apoptosis and autophagy in breast cancer have not yet been investigated. In the present study, we explored the anti-tumor effects of Rg3RGE on breast cancer cells stimulated CoCl2, a mimetic of the chronic hypoxic response, and determined the operative mechanisms of action.

Methods:
The inhibitory mechanisms of Rg3RGE on breast cancer cells, such as apoptosis, autophagy and ROS levels, were detected both in vitro. To determine the anti-cancer effects of Rg3RGE in vivo, the cancer xenograft model was used.

Results:
Rg3RGE suppressed CoCl2-induced spheroid formation and cell viability in 3D culture of breast cancer cells. Rg3RGE promoted apoptosis by increasing cleaved caspase 3 and cleaved PARP and decreasing Bcl2 under the hypoxia mimetic conditions. Further, we identified that Rg3RGE promoted apoptosis by inhibiting lysosomal degradation of autophagosome contents in CoCl2-induced autophagy. We further identified that Rg3RGE-induced apoptotic cell death and autophagy inhibition was mediated by increased intracellular ROS levels. Similarly, in the in vivo xenograft model, Rg3RGE induced apoptosis and inhibited cell proliferation and autophagy.

Conclusion:
Rg3RGE-stimulated ROS production promotes apoptosis and inhibits protective autophagy under hypoxic conditions. Autophagosome accumulation is critical to the apoptotic effects of Rg3RGE. The in vivo findings also demonstrate that Rg3RGE inhibits breast cancer cell growth, suggesting that Rg3RGE has potential as potential as a putative breast cancer therapeutic.
Keimyung Author(s)(Kor)
권택규
Publisher
School of Medicine (의과대학)
Type
Article
ISSN
2093-4947
Source
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1226845323000672
DOI
10.1016/j.jgr.2023.06.001
URI
https://kumel.medlib.dsmc.or.kr/handle/2015.oak/45325
Appears in Collections:
1. School of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Immunology (면역학)
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