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International Difference of Tobacco Related COVID-19 Severity

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Author(s)
BangBu YounJunchae LeeSungho KoJinYoung LeeSoHyeon CheonSeongwan HongDaeHyun Kim
Keimyung Author(s)
Hong, Seung WanKim, Dae Hyun
Department
Dept. of Family Medicine (가정의학)
Journal Title
Keimyung Med J
Issued Date
2024
Volume
43
Issue
1
Keyword
Cigarette smokingCOVID-19Socioeconomic factor
Abstract
This study aimed to analyze the correlation between smoking and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity by region and gross domestic product (GDP). The regions were categorized by continent and GDP rankings. Studies conducted between June 3, 2020 and March 27, 2023 were searched to compare the severity of COVID-19 between smokers and non-smokers according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Compared with never-smokers, the smokers’ COVID-19 severity scores were 1.48 (confidence interval [CI]: 1.25–1.75) in Asia, 1.24 (CI: 1.05–1.46) in the Middle East, 1.32 (1.21–1.45) in Europe, 1.39 (1.30–1.49) in North America, 1.69 (1.22–2.34) in South America, and 2.87 (1.82–4.53) in Africa. By GDP, the smokers’ COVID-19 severity scores were higher than those of never-smokers: 1.42 (1.32–1.53) in high-GDP countries, 1.33 (1.25–1.41) in middle-GDP countries (11th–50th), and 1.53 (0.85–2.76) in low-GDP countries. The COVID-19 severity in smokers was significantly higher in low-GDP countries than in high- and middle-income countries. The high COVID-19 death rate among smokers in the African continent and low-GDP countries is thought to stem from the lack of medical management systems compared with other countries. In addition to medical treatment, environmental or socioeconomic factors can increase the severity.
Keimyung Author(s)(Kor)
홍승완
김대현
Publisher
School of Medicine (의과대학)
Type
Article
ISSN
2733-5380
Source
https://www.e-kmj.org/journal/view.php?number=2304
DOI
10.46308/kmj.2024.00045
URI
https://kumel.medlib.dsmc.or.kr/handle/2015.oak/45414
Appears in Collections:
2. Keimyung Medical Journal (계명의대 학술지) > 2024
1. School of Medicine (의과대학) > Dept. of Family Medicine (가정의학)
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